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Weekly Digest #35

Updated: Apr 12

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Force Number 5?

By: Abhimanyu Rao


Science is an extremely fluid field, and it’s not just because liquid is a state of matter🤣! New discoveries are always shaking its fragile foundations, and changing the way we look at the world, and the universe at large. Nothing in science ever has to be true - it all depends on what you know.

There was a time when humanity used to believe that the Earth was the centre of the Solar System! This was one of those things that just had to be true, but when evidence arose, it showed us that we revolve around the sun in one of many solar systems that revolve around a supermassive black hole in one of the many galaxies in the universe! (That was quite a mouthful, wasn’t it?)


Anyway, the thing is, what I really mean, is that science is the most fluid thing I've ever seen!(Elton John songs-out of this world! Because-space, get it?😁). Anyway, let me spare you from my bad puns, and get onto the pun-damentals (I’m really on a roll today!) of this article.


The Four-ces:


The first thing to discuss here is the current model of fundamental forces, the Status Quo. The Fundamental Forces are four forces of nature that control our universe. These forces were extremely important in the creation of our universe, and till date, they remain integral to our very existence.

These forces are:

  • Gravity- The most well known of the four forces - gravity - pulls bodies of large masses together. While gravity acts on each and every object, and there is even gravity between you and the device you’re reading this Digest on, your masses are far too small for there to be any visible effect of gravity. When the universe was formed, everything was extremely small, so gravity didn’t have much to do, at least until matter started forming. However, gravity is much more than what we assume it is. In Weekly Digest #19, Mihir talked about Wormholes. Well, wormholes were theorised because of gravities to bend space and time!


  • Strong Nuclear force- This force is the strongest of all the Four-ces (obviously!). It has been given the ever important task of holding together atoms. This force is in charge of keeping quarks in check. Quarks are subatomic particles that come in 6 types. These quarks are never found alone. They always come attached to other quarks. Well, these quarks make up protons and neutrons, and the strong force is the reason the nucleus of the atom exists, and essential for our existence.

  • Weak Nuclear Force- This force is not really a weak force. It is much stronger than gravity, but it is weaker than Strong Nuclear force. It does the exact opposite of Strong Force. It slowly breaks down atoms and releases energy. This process is called Radioactive Decay. The fact that this force is weaker than strong force is the reason atoms don’t decay instantly! This force is the black sheep of the fundamental forces, as it’s the only one breaking matter apart!

  • Electromagnetic Force- The fourth Fundamental Force is quite strong. While it is weaker than Strong Force, it is still stronger than the other two forces. It has arguably the most important job… Keeping electrons in their orbit around the nucleus. Without this, the atom would simply be two separate entities, not an atom at all! This just goes to show how essential this is.

So there you have it, the four fundamental forces, each as essential as the next!



Is there a Fifth Force?


Have you ever thrown something? Whether it is a dart at a dartboard, or a basketball at a basketball hoop, throwing something at something else always gives people an adrenaline rush! Scientists know that, and they love it too.


For several experiments, they use a particle accelerator, a machine that rapidly accelerates particles, smashes them against each other, and scientists see what happens, jot down their notes, and come up with theories.


The United States Department of Energy conducted an experiment called the muon g-2. This experiment was centered on a subatomic particle called the muon. The muon is a lepton, which, along with the quark a fundamental particle of the universe, and as far as we know, is indivisible.


The muon is like an electron, just 200 times heavier, and it is created on Earth when a cosmic ray hits our atmosphere. This experiment showed many particles wobbling inexplicably, and this wobbling could not be explained by any of the Four-ces!

When the scientists measured a certain quantity, which was the interaction of the muon with the rest of the universe, the quantity measured was not the same as the calculated quantity!


Possible Explanations


This discrepancy in the data could mean one of two things. Firstly, this is the work of an undiscovered particle, which is exciting, but there have been so many new particle discoveries that this new particle may not fulfill everyone’s amazement meter. The more exciting theory is that this is the work of an unknown fundamental force of the universe! This is far more exciting because it is a complete change to the field of astrophysics! While we have been observing the universe through the lenses of only these four-ces, looking at it with the perspective of a fifth force acting on it will make a huge change to the way we see the universe!


What does this mean?

This has several implications. Firstly, as I mentioned earlier, this will change our view of the universe forever! Applying the fifth force of the universe can open us up to a host of new discoveries, which could explain some mysteries like dark matter and dark energy! The other implication is the I can no longer call the Fundamental Forces Four-ces😥. Nevertheless, we should look at this with an open mind, so that we notice the wonders of the universe above us, and maybe change the world some day!



Cover Story-


Tantalising Technology: Is it worth it?

By: Mihir Rao


In many articles, The Paperless Press has covered many strides in progression, such as SpaceX, the possible fifth fundamental force (You should go check out Abhimanyu’s Article for more info), the SpaceX programme, Mars and new life on it, etc. Although all this is good, we have to ask the question: Are We Ready?


Of course, our world is wildly different from the one that we had a hundred, maybe two hundred years ago.. With phones, computers, data networks that span thousands upon thousands of miles, communication has never been easier! We have so many different things that make our life so much easier! But, is that the problem?


First, as I mentioned before, we have too many things that improve the quality of our life and make it too easy. Let me give you an example:



Phones: These are extremely useful, since you have a calculator, a device for food, a small little device that contains almost all human knowledge, and a way to contact people all around the world all packed into one box. These are absolutely necessary for

nowadays, but they may not improve our skills much. Although it’s good that you have everything at your fingertips, your skills (like mathematics) and anything else are futile now that you have a universal calculator with you. All that teaching at school is futile now, because you have every piece of knowledge that you need and you don’t need with you at all times. But, this can often prove to be a crutch, because if you leave somewhere without your phone, then you’re doomed. The phone is a necessity to us, not because we need it to be, but because we WANT it to be.


Also, because of this article, I might come off sounding like an old grandpa, but that’s just a risk that I’ll have to take 🤣


Secondly, we’re progressing and evolving at an alarmingly fast rate, which makes it hard to get comfortable with anything! I mean, every year there’s a new make or model of a device with a million more functions! One year, you have a phone with 2 different cameras and an extremely slim model, then the next year they just double the cameras and make the model even slimmer!

But these devices lead to my last point:


Like a car using a fuel and having an exhaust for all the fumes to come out, our progression has also had a by-product. The millions upon millions of tonnes of waste is affecting everyone, as a whole..




Mahatma Gandhi once said, “The world has enough resources for everyone’s need, not anyone’s greed.” And here, this statement proves true. The potential that expanding our civilisation and progressing and technological evolution has, has corrupted our civilisation. In turn, everyone is desperate to seek evolution and power, and we haven’t really thought of one thing.


In our pursuit for ultimate power, evolution and technological advancement, we forgot one thing: Appreciation. When you’re striving for something, especially when you want only that, you forget to appreciate where you’ve reached. To know more about the debate of technology, read Abhimanyu’s article in Weekly Digest #19.










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5 lessons from 2020 that will help us in 2021

By: Agastya Rao


Some people may hate it when history repeats itself, some may like it and others may be indifferent to it. As the spread of Covid-19 worsens around the world, there is a sense of deja vu around us, and not in a good way. It appears as if history is repeating itself and we are reliving 2020 all over again, to 2021. You must be wondering what we could possibly do to not feel overwhelmed by this situation.


Luckily for you, you have your friendly neighbourhood Weekly Digest to help you out! Here are 5 lessons from 2020 that will help us overcome the Pandemic Blues, version 2021.



1. Resilience and Adaptability - What exactly is ‘resilience’? While the dictionary may say that it is the ability to recover and withstand harsh conditions (Oxford), a simplified meaning is that us humans are like yo-yos.


We can bounce back from the toughest conditions and quickly adapt to the conditions around us. We adapted (fairly) quickly to moving everything from school*, movies^ , newspapers and even museums went online. We started getting used to staying at home. This goes to show how we can adapt to tough situations. When the pandemic gets tough, sit back, stretch a bit, and prepare to bounce back and adapt once again. Use change to your advantage!


* Abhimanyu’s article on online school in Weekly Digest #4

^ My article in Weekly Digest #8 on the Rise of OTT in the Pandemic



2. Improved reading and Binge Watching skills🍿- I am sure that many of our readers caught up on their reading, whether it was reading a book, a comic or The Paperless Press, we finally got the time to sit down in a peaceful spot and immerse ourselves in the endless world of imagination and creativity- books! We must continue reading more books to not lose touch with reality (just kidding), and you should continue reading for reasons explained by Mihir in Weekly Digest #9.


Now for the second part- Binge Watching. With all the free time on our hands, and a little bit of boredom combined with a need for an adrenaline rush we resorted to Binge Watching. Watching hours of TV shows, horror movies and even re-watching some of our old favourite TV shows and movies (it was Star Wars for me!) was fun. Binge Watching provides us a break from the stress of our day to day works. For how not to take stress, read Abhimanyu’s article in Weekly Digest #11. Maybe parents can rewatch classics from their childhood with their children, and children can get their parents caught up on the latest in movies and music. Do consider a little moderation in order to prevent headaches!


3. Unleashing Creativity- Similar to what Mihir wrote in Weekly Digest #7 about his new found hobby of gardening, and a Guest Submission from Vaanya Bhandari of a painting in Weekly Digest #8, a Guest Submission by Rohan Jagadeesan of Digital art he created in Weekly Digest #18, and Sudha Aggarwal’s Guest Submission of a painting in Weekly Digest #9 go to show how many people unleashed their creativity during the pandemic. We have seen many people turn into extraordinary chefs, writers, artists and more during 2020. Our hobbies make us relax and feel calm. Our hobbies will give us something to rally around when we need to!


4. Unity- The World rallied to support the Black Lives Matter movement after the murder of George Floyd and Breonna Taylor. The world even came together to support and thank frontline workers for all their work. This is exactly what we should be focusing on!


Whenever you feel as if it is unfair that the pandemic happened, think of the frontline workers and how they are risking their lives everyday, to fight the pandemic. I assure you, this will give you a surge of inspiration and will help you power through all obstacles. If we stay unified and follow Covid-19 precautions not even a pandemic can break us!


5. Helping others in need- 2020 taught us to help everyone in need, because only together can we beat the pandemic. We interviewed Teenager Shounak Malhotra Weekly Digest #2 about his initiative called Project Telemedi which aims to promote telehealth and telemedicine in order to provide easy healthcare to everyone. We also interviewed Changemaker and University of Illinois student Mihir Vardhan in Weekly Digest #4 about how he created 14 disinfectant machines that can kill Covid-19 and sanitize items. He even donated some of these to the Indian Army and the Government of India. He helped frontline workers by creating face shields out of plastic folders. These are just a few examples of many initiatives by people from across the globe which impacted and helped a lot of people. These creative ideas and helping more people who are in need will surely help us all move forward!



We must remain hopeful and optimistic that 2021 will be a good year. Vaccinations have started and we still have a shot at saving the earth (get it- vaccine/shot at saving the earth?). So read, watch movies, follow your hobbies and have a safe 2021!














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By: Agastya Rao


  1. Anyone who has watched Mary Poppins will recognize Dick Van Dyke as the lovable, friendly, and multi-talented Bert. Lovers of the movie Chitty Chitty Bang Bang will remember him as eccentric inventor Caractacus Potts. One trait that both characters have in common is their kindness, and evidently, that isn’t a trait exclusive to the characters he played! Mr. Van Dyke was recently seen handing out money to people who were looking for a job. How nice of him!

  2. A dog was trapped in the currently freezing Detroit river! He was spotted by a wildlife photographer, but the photographer was unable to reach the dog. Then a gentleman named Mr Jude Mead and his son rented an airboat and saved the dog! The dog was taken to a hospital, where he was treated for frostbite and dehydration. He was named Miracle and put up for adoption. He was finally adopted by Mr. Mead, the man who saved him! Heartwarming news indeed!

  3. Carbon emissions are a huge threat to the ecosystem, and Saudi Arabia has shown that they are preparing to combat this. They have partnered with Green Middle East to plant 50 Billion trees across the Middle East! In addition, they are also aiming to decrease carbon emissions by 60%! What a great initiative!

  4. An anonymous group called Greetings Toronto is leaving heartwarming handwritten messages across the city. In a time like this, where negativity is rampant, these notes are a great way to make someone's day! With lovely messages like “you are enough”, and “Just reminding you that you are beautiful”, these notes have received a lot of positive replies from people on social media all across Toronto and the world!



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By: Mihir Rao

  1. Everyone’s had the dream of visiting space and seeing the world as a whole at one point in their lives, right? Well, now that dream will become a reality, when the first SPACE HOTEL will open for business in 2027! The hotel will have luxury accommodations for up to 280 people!! Plus, the hotel will have an option for buying a villa, like a vacation home. The hotel has many more features, such as a gourmet restaurant, a gym, etc.

  2. The city of Lima is in a desert, and it needs water. How? Well, an ingenious solution has been thought of and implemented: Fog nets. These massive spiraling poles are not actually poles, but are nets designed to catch fog and collect water. If implemented correctly, these nets could collect up to a THOUSAND litres of water a day!

  3. This new technology allows us to capture CO2 in Concrete! The Canada based technology, CarbonCure, is aiming to reduce carbon emissions by 500 megatons a year! That’s 500 MILLION tons!

  4. 99942 Apophis was one of the most fearful asteroids, according to scientists. It was scheduled to hit Earth in 2068, But thankfully, it will not hit it in 2068. Instead, It will pass very close to Earth, 20,000 miles close, to be exact! When it comes in 2029, be sure to keep an eye out!



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Entertainment quotient for the week:


Netflix

My Octopus Teacher



















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By: Abhimanyu Rao


Tennis (Miami Open and Monte Carlo Masters)


Miami Open-


Men’s Singles:


Jannik Sinner was defeated by Herbert Hurkacz in the Finals of the Miami Open. Jannik Sinner then soared in rankings to reach a career high ATP singles rank of 23rd in the World. This is no mere feat for a teenager who is just 19 years old! Herbert Hurkacz moved up 21 places in rankings to a career high rank of 16.


Women’s Singles:


Asheligh Barty defeated Bianca Andreescu in the Finals after Bianca Andreescu retired from the match in the second set with an injury. Ashely Barty won: 6-4, 4-0.


The Monte Carlo Open begins on the 10th of April. Stay tuned to The Last Shot for the latest updates on the Monte Carlo Open!



Basketball (NBA)


-The Charlotte Hornets defeated the Milwaukee Bucks 127-119. The Charlotte Hornets also moved up to the 4th position in the Eastern Conference. The Two time MVP and top scorer of the Bucks Giannis Antekompuo was out with an injury, and we wish him a speedy recovery! The Hornet’s Miles Bridges was the top scorer in the game with 26 points, 7 rebounds and 4 assists.


The Charlotte Hornets didn’t have top players Gordon Hayward or Number 3 draft pick Lamelo Ball whose spectacular rookie season was messed up with a fracture. Gordon Hayward too has an injury and shall be out for the rest of the month.


- The New York Pelicans defeated a certain team which ranks 2nd in the Eastern Conference, with a 35 wins 17 losses record and that has been in excellent form- the Philadelphia 76ers. The Pelicans did not have Number 2 Draft Pick and former LA Lakers player, Lamelo Ball’s older brother Lonzo Ball who averaged 14.5 points per game.


He is currently out with an injury. However even though the Pelicans have star players Lonzo Ball, Brandon Ingram, and Zion Williamson who was the top scorer with 37 points, they still ranked 11th in the Western Conference. Who knows? If they continue with this amazing performance, they may be able to get themselves a playoff berth?


-More news, Zach LaVine star player of the Chicago Bulls scored a career high 50 points, 8 rebounds, and 5 assists against the Atlanta Hawks. Sadly, this was not enough to help the 10th Ranked Eastern Conference team win, as they lost to the Atlanta Hawks: 120-108.


-Top Teams this week in both Conferences- Eastern Conference: Brooklyn Nets (36 Wins- 16 Losses). Western Conference- Utah Jazz (39 wins- 13 losses)



Cricket (IPL)-


India’s most awaited sporting event has begun (minus audiences, thanks to increasing Covid numbers)! The IPL kicked off its first match this week with the reigning champions the (MI) Mumbai Indians going up against the Royal Challengers Bangalore (RCB)! RCB won the toss and decided to bowl, and with a stellar performance from RCB bowler Harshal Patel who took 5 wickets and gave 27 runs (Who was later the Player of the Match) RCB won the match by 2 wickets, with zero balls left. Chris Lynn was the top scorer for MI with 49 runs in 35 balls, and Ab DeVilliers was the top scorer for RCB with 48 runs in 27 balls.


The Chennai Super Kings lost to the Delhi Capitals by 7 wickets. The Player of the Match was Shikhar Dhawan of the Delhi Capitals who scored 85 runs in 54 balls. The top scorer in CSK was Suresh Raina who scored 54 runs in 36 balls.


Golf (Special Feature- the Augusta Masters Tournament)-


The 85th Augusta Masters was full of Hits and Misses (Quite literally!). Hideki Matsuyama of Japan leads with a score of -7!


*Update: Hideki Matsuyama became the first Japanese man to win a golf major after he won the tournament with a final score of -10! Will Zlatoris from the United States of America came second with a final score of -9. Xander Schauffele and Jordan Spieth from the United States of America tied for the thrid position with a final score of -7.



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